Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)
Return on Invested Capital evaluates companies by asking, How much net income has been generated per each dollar of invested capital? For instance, if a stakeholder gave one dollar to this company, how much money would the company earn by investing that one dollar? A ROIC of 5% means that a company earns 5 dollars per 100 dollars invested.
ROIC is often considered a more reasonable estimate of managerial performance than Return on Equity (ROE) because it takes into account investments by debt holders. Similarly, it is different from Return on Assets because it includes capital that shareholders have invested into the company.
ROIC = Net Income / Average Invested Capital