Developed by Gordon Springate in 1978, this model selected four out of nineteen common financial ratios to determine the likelihood of firms failing. This model also uses stepwise discriminant analysis to result in scores for each specific company.
Companies with a Springate score lower than .862 are classified as "failed". This model was originally by Springate on 40 companies with an accuracy rating of 92.5%. In later tests done by other academic researchers, a 50 Company test (with average assets of 2.5 million) showed a 88% accuracy and a 24 Company Test (with average assets of 63.4 million) showed a 83% accuracy.
Z = 1.03A + 3.07B + .66C + .4D
A = Working Capital / Total Assets
B = EBIT / Total Assets
C = EBT / Current Liabilities
D = Sales / Total Assets