PNC Financial Services Group KZ Index (Annual)
KZ Index (Annual) Chart
Historical KZ Index (Annual) Data
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About KZ Index
The KZ-Index (Kaplan-Zingales Index) is a relative measurement of reliance on external financing. Companies with a higher KZ-Index scores are more likely to experience difficulties when financial conditions tighten since they may have difficulty financing their ongoing operations.
1) The model is a probabilistic model, so it will not perfectly predict which companies are financially constrained and which are not, but it should help to raise warning flags.
2) The synthetic KZ-Index that we use was developed only for non-financial firms, so it is safest to disregard financial firms' KZ-Index scores.
The score is relative, so knowledge of the overall universe of firms is helpful to gauge the standing of the firm. Here are percentiles of scores for all companies in our database as of September 2nd, 2011:
90th: 10.12 (10% of companies have higher - worse - scores than this)
10th: -14.43 (10% of companies have lower - better - scores than this)
For interested users, our index is based on of the Synthetic Kaplan-Zingales Index presented in Lamont, Polk, and Saa-Requejo (2001), Financial Constraints and Stock Returns.
KZ Index (Annual) Benchmarks
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KZ Index (Annual) Excel Add-In Codes
- Metric Code: kz_index
- Data Point Example: =YCP("PNC", "kz_index")
- Data Series Example: =YCS("PNC", "kz_index", -4)
To find the codes for any of our financial metrics, see our Complete Reference of Metric Codes.
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